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Combining Participations is a trans-disciplinary work on participatory e-planning which the author re-conceptualizes as comprising different types of participation that take place in urban planning, as well as in the design of digital technology. The different types of participation can occur simultaneously in different combinations and affect one another. At a time when the increasing rate of both urbanization and digitization around the globe is bringing urban planning and digital technology closer to one another, it is important to move beyond buzzwords such as "smart cities" and "living labs". This thesis provides novel tools, such as the matrix of multiple participations and the Expanded Participatory Design approach, which make it possible to explore a more genuinely democratic vision of cities and technologies and to devise ways of realizing such vision. Joanna Saad-Sulonen has a Bachelor in Architecture from the American University of Beirut and a Master of Arts in New Media from the University of Arts and design Helsinki. She works as a researcher and is interested in the many ways digital technologies, urban environments and everyday life intersect.